Common problem

What are the “dangerous goods” in international air transport?

Class 9 dangerous goods

“Dangerous goods” means materials or articles with dangerous characteristics that, if not properly controlled, may pose potential hazards to human health and safety, infrastructure and / or its means of transport.

The transport of dangerous goods is controlled and managed by various management systems and operates at the national and international levels. Prominent regulatory frameworks for the transport of dangerous goods include the “United Nations Recommendation on the transport of dangerous goods”, “ICAO technical rules”, “IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations” and the “International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code” of the international maritime organization. In general, these regulatory systems regulate the handling, packaging, labeling and transportation of dangerous goods.

The regulatory framework incorporates an integrated hazard classification system to provide classification of dangerous goods. The classification of dangerous goods is divided into nine categories according to the types of dangerous goods or goods. Click the course to read more details;



Flammable liquid

Flammable solid

Oxidizing substance

Toxic and infectious substances

Radioactive material

Corrosive substances

Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods

The complexity of many dangerous goods systems and dangerous goods classification and regulations around the world makes compliance a particularly difficult task. However, as a logistics company specializing in dangerous goods, DGI can provide customized solutions for all customers’ dangerous goods needs. DGI is proficient in all nine categories of dangerous goods and provides a range of services, including packaging, packaging, labeling, freight forwarding and training.

Class 1 – explosives

Explosives are materials or articles that can burn or explode rapidly due to chemical reactions.

Item 1.1: substances and articles with explosion hazard

Item 1.2: substances and articles with projection hazard but not large-scale explosion hazard

Item 1.3: substances and articles with fire hazard, slight explosion hazard or slight projection hazard or both

Item 1.4: substances and articles without major hazards; There is only a small risk of ignition or start-up during transportation, and any impact is mainly limited to packaging

Item 1.5: very insensitive substances with explosion hazard

Item 1.6: extremely insensitive items, no explosion hazard

Reasons for supervision

Explosives can cause catastrophic damage by force and / or other harmful amounts of heat, light, sound, gas or smoke through chemical reactions that produce gases at temperature, pressure and speed.

Common transport explosives

Ammunition / box

Fireworks / fireworks


Blasting cap / detonator



Explosive charge (blasting, demolition, etc.)

Detonating line

Airbag inflator



TNT / TNT composition

RDX / RDX composition

PETN / PETN composition

Class 2 – gas

Gases are defined by the regulations on dangerous goods as substances with a vapor pressure of 300 kPa or higher at 50 ° C or completely gaseous at 20 ° C at standard atmospheric pressure, as well as articles containing these substances. This category includes compressed gas, liquefied gas, dissolved gas, frozen liquefied gas, mixture of one or more gases and one or more other categories of substance vapor, and articles containing gases and aerosols.

Division 2.1 flammable gases

Item 2.2: non flammable and non-toxic gas

Item 2.3: toxic gas

Reasons for supervision

Gas can cause serious harm due to its flammability, asphyxiation ability, oxidation ability and / or toxicity or corrosivity to human body.

Common transport gases:


Compressed air

Hydrocarbon pneumatic device

Fire Extinguisher

Air cylinder

Fertilizer ammoniation solution

Pesticide gas

refrigerant gas


Acetylene / oxyacetylene

carbon dioxide

Helium / helium compound

Hydrogen / hydrogen compound

Oxygen / oxygen compound

Nitrogen / nitrogen compounds

natural gas

associated gas

petroleum gas





dimethyl ether

Propylene / propylene


Class 3 – flammable liquids

Flammable liquid is defined as liquid by dangerous goods. Liquid mixture or liquid containing solid in solution or suspension releases flammable vapor (flash point) when the temperature is not higher than 60-65 ° C, transports substances whose liquid temperature is equal to or higher than its flash point or transported in liquid at high temperature, and releases flammable vapor at the maximum transportation temperature or lower than the maximum transportation temperature.

There is no subdivision in class 3 flammable liquids.

Reasons for supervision

Flammable liquids can cause serious hazards due to their volatility, flammability and the possibility of causing or spreading serious deflagration.

Common transportation of flammable liquids

Acetone / acetone oil

an adhesive

Paint / varnish / varnish


Perfume products

Gasoline / gasoline

Diesel dye

Aviation fuel

Liquid biofuel

Coal tar / coal tar oil fraction

Petroleum crude oil

Petroleum fraction

Gas oil

Shale oil

Heating oil





Carbamate insecticides

Organochlorine pesticides

Organophosphorus pesticide

Copper based pesticides












Class 4 – Flammable solids; Substances responsible for natural combustion; Substances that are flammable when in contact with water

Flammable solids are substances that are easy to burn or may cause or contribute to fire through friction under the conditions encountered in transportation, and self reactive substances or solid desensitized explosives that are prone to strong exothermic reaction. It also includes substances that are easy to heat spontaneously or in contact with air under normal transportation conditions, so they are easy to catch fire and flammable gases or substances in contact with water.

Item 4.1: flammable solids

Item 4.2: substances prone to spontaneous combustion

Item 4.3: substances that will release flammable gases in contact with water

Reasons for supervision

Flammable solids can cause serious hazards due to their volatility, flammability and the possibility of causing or spreading serious deflagration.

Common transportation of flammable solids; Spontaneous combustibles; ‘ Wet hazardous’ materials

alkali metal

metal powder

Aluminum phosphide

Sodium battery

Sodium cell



Calcium carbide



Activated carbon



Dried coconut meat

Seed cake

Oily cotton waste

Desensitized explosive

Oily fabric

Oily fiber


Iron oxide (spent)

Iron sponge / direct reduction iron (flower)






Class 5 – oxidizing substances; Organic peroxide

Oxidants are defined by hazardous materials regulations as substances that may cause or contribute to combustion, usually producing oxygen through redox chemical reactions. Organic peroxides can be considered

Oxidants are defined by hazardous materials regulations as substances that may cause or contribute to combustion, usually producing oxygen through redox chemical reactions. Organic peroxides are substances that can be considered as derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, in which one or two hydrogen atoms of chemical structure have been replaced by organic groups.

Item 5.1: oxidizing substances

Item 5.1: organic peroxide

Reasons for supervision

Although the oxidant itself is not necessarily combustible, it can produce oxygen and cause or promote the combustion of other materials. Organic peroxides are thermally unstable and may emit heat while undergoing exothermic autocatalytic decomposition. In addition, organic peroxides may be easy to explode and decompose, burn rapidly, be sensitive to impact or friction, react dangerously with other substances or cause damage to eyes.

Common transport oxidants; Organic peroxide

Chemical oxygen generator

Ammonium nitrate fertilizer







Aluminum nitrate

Ammonium dichromate

ammonium nitrate

Ammonium persulfate

Calcium hypochlorite

Calcium nitrate

Calcium peroxide

hydrogen peroxide

Magnesium peroxide

Lead nitrate

Lithium hypochlorite

Potassium chlorate

potassium nitrate

Potassium chlorate

Potassium perchlorate

potassium permanganate

Sodium nitrate

Sodium persulfate

Category 6 – toxic substances; Infectious substance

Toxic substances refer to substances that may cause death or serious injury or endanger human health by swallowing, inhalation or skin contact. Infectious substances are substances known or reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Dangerous goods regulations define pathogens as microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, Rickettsia, parasites and fungi, or other drugs that may cause diseases in humans or animals.

Item 6.1: toxic substances

Item 6.2: infectious substances

Reasons for supervision

Toxic and infectious substances may pose a significant risk to human and animal health after exposure.

Common toxic and harmful substances; Infectious substance

Medical / biomedical waste

Clinical waste

Biological culture / sample / specimen

Medical culture / sample / specimen

Tearing gas substance

Engine fuel antiknock mixture


Carbamate pesticides







Mercaptan / mercaptan


Barium compound

Arsenic / arsenic compounds

Beryllium / beryllium compound

Lead compound

Mercury compound

Nicotine / nicotine compounds

Selenium compounds


Ammonium metavanadate







Class 7 – radioactive substances

The dangerous goods regulations define a radioactive substance as any material containing radionuclides whose active concentration and total activity exceed certain predetermined values. Radionuclides are atoms with unstable nuclei and are therefore subject to radioactive decay.

There is no breakdown in category 7 radioactive materials.

Reasons for supervision

During radioactive decay, radionuclides emit ionizing radiation, which poses a potentially serious risk to human health.

Common transport of radioactive materials

Radioactive ore

Medical isotope

Yellow cake


Mixed fission products

Surface contaminated objects

Cesium radionuclide / isotope

Radionuclide / Iridium

Americ radionuclide / isotope

Plutonium radionuclide / isotope

Radium radionuclide / isotope

Thorium radionuclide / isotope

Uranium radionuclide / isotope

Depleted uranium / depleted uranium products

Uranium hexafluoride

enriched uranium

Class 8 – corrosion

Corrosivity is a substance that degrades or decomposes other materials upon contact by chemical action.

There is no breakdown in category 8 corrosives.

Reasons for supervision

Corrosive substances can cause serious damage in contact with living tissue, or in case of leakage, damage or destruction of surrounding materials.

Common transport corrosives

Acid / acid solution


Battery fluid

Fuel cell cartridge


Fire extinguisher charging


scaling powder


Alkyl phenol









Phenol / carbonic acid

hydrofluoric acid

hydrochloric acid

sulphuric acid

nitric acid

Sludge acid

Hydrogen fluoride



Class 9 – other dangerous goods

Miscellaneous dangerous goods refer to dangerous or dangerous substances and articles not covered by other categories during transportation. This category includes but is not limited to substances harmful to the environment, substances transported at high temperatures, miscellaneous items and substances, genetically modified organisms and microorganisms, magnetized materials (depending on the method of transportation) and aviation controlled substances.

There is no breakdown in category 9 miscellaneous hazardous materials.

Reasons for supervision

Miscellaneous hazardous materials pose a wide range of potential hazards to human health and safety, infrastructure and / or its means of transport.

Miscellaneous dangerous goods normally transported

Dry ice / cardice / solid carbon dioxide

Expandable polymer beads / polystyrene beads

Ammonium nitrate fertilizer

Blue asbestos / crocidolite

Lithium ion battery

Lithium metal battery

Battery powered equipment

Battery powered vehicles

Fuel cell engine

internal-combustion engine


Magnetized material

Dangerous goods in equipment

Dangerous goods in the machine

Genetically modified organisms

Transgenic microorganism

Chemical Kit

First aid kit

Life saving equipment

Airbag module

Seat belt pretensioner

Plastic molding compound

Castor plant products

Polychlorinated biphenyls

Polychlorinated terphenyl



International logistics FAQs

Q: the whole container of goods has verification sheets from multiple factories. Can you declare it together? Can you declare separately?

A: you can declare at the same time, not separately. The verification forms of all manufacturers must be declared at one customs broker.

Q: LCL goods have six product names. Can you declare with a verification form?

A: No. Only 5 product names can be used in a write off document. Two sets of verification forms are required for customs declaration.

Q: is the audio and connecting line subject to commodity inspection?

A: commodity inspection is required.

Q: LCL goods have been warehoused. Can they be returned and will there be any expenses?

A: it can be refunded to generate expenses, which can be settled directly with the warehouse

Q: when can the goods be reported for customs clearance?

A: it can be released in half a day, depending on the application and approval speed of each customs.

Q: how long is the customs clearance time for the goods that have been declared and released?

A: at least half a month

Q: if the container is dumped, the shipping company will lose money

A: we are not responsible for compensation for the expenses beyond the control of the shipping company, such as delayed arrival, delayed departure, cabin explosion and container dumping, transit, customs declaration delay and so on.

Q: what is the charging standard for empty containers?

A: the air return fee is calculated as 80% of the trailer fee

Q: do you need a re export license for textiles by sea?

A: no re export license is required for shipment from Shenzhen. Transit permit is required for shipment from Hong Kong

Q: CO did it today. Can I issue the original today?

A: as long as the original is confirmed before the CCPIT system is closed in the afternoon, the original can be taken on the same day. The system is closed on time at 5:00 p.m.

Q: can you fill in the 10 + 2 information? That guest can’t fill in, and I can’t fill in.   

A: the 10 + 2 information is provided to us by the guests, and then we give it to the last home or the direct shipping company, so many information is only known by the guests themselves, and we can’t write

Q: can I have the ocean bill of lading now?

A: the ocean bill of lading should be issued within three days of the ship’s departure. It can’t be given to you yet( The goods have just entered the warehouse, and the customs declaration has not been declared yet)

Q: what is the difference between FOB and CIF?

A: FOB means no sea freight and premium (that is, the often heard FOB price), CIF means cost, plus insurance premium and sea freight (that is, the often heard CIF price)

Q: can ocean bills of lading be issued in advance?

A: No, we can’t sign the bill of lading backwards.

Q: can the Asia Pacific certificate of origin be made in advance?

A: No, within three working days from the date of sailing.

Q: can the dry battery come out?

A: provide MSDS to the agent to confirm whether it is available.

Q: what information should be provided for certificate of origin?

Answer: packing list and invoice (Chinese product name), commodity code.

Q: what should be paid attention to in general trade declaration?

A: Chinese product name, customs code, transaction method, foreign exchange settlement method, brand, model and purpose.

Q: 20 * 30 * 40cm, a total of 36 boxes. How about the volume?

A * total width divided by 1000000 boxes

Q: can multiple counters be reported with one verification sheet? Can multiple counters use multiple verification forms for customs declaration?

A: you can declare with the name of the ship.

Q: can there be two consignees for the whole container of bill of lading?

A: No. Only agents can be used, and then sub orders are issued to customers.

Q: what does 1 / 1:1000 in bulk cargo quotation mean?   

A: if your weight is 1200kgs, your freight is 1.2cbm.

The first 1 means that the minimum charging volume is 1 cubic meter; 1: 1000 means that the general standard for judging heavy goods by LCL is 1 ton = 1 cubic meter = 1000 kg, that is, if 1 cubic meter is less than 1000 kg, it belongs to light goods and 1 cubic meter is greater than 1000 kg, it belongs to heavy goods. If it is 1200kg goods, the weight and volume should be 1.2cbm, and 1.2 cubic meters will be charged when charging.

Q: I don’t know how to fill in the business process sheet. Please teach me??

A: look at the business process sheet. The shipper information is at the top. This is convenient for our operation and contact. You must fill it out. The next step is to fill in the shipping date information. The shipping date you asked the marketing department and the shipping company should be clearly written on it to facilitate our operation and booking. Next is the content of your negotiation with the guests. We need to do the one-stop service of sea transportation or sea transportation, trailer, customs declaration, telex release of the bill of lading or issuance of the original… Next is the price… (it takes 12 minutes to complete)

Q: what does DDU / DDP mean?

Answer: DDU / DDP is generally used for customs clearance and delivery. DDU delivered duty unpaid(….named place of destination)

This term is usually translated as delivery without duty paid (designated destination). The general rules explains that the seller is responsible for transporting the goods to the destination designated by the importing and exporting country and delivering them to the buyer or another person designated by the buyer, but there is no need to unload the goods, that is, the seller delivers the goods on the means of transport at the destination. The buyer shall unload, transport and import customs clearance by itself, and bear all expenses from the delivery of the goods.

The term DDP Delivered Duty Paid (…. named place of destination) is usually translated as delivery after duty paid (designated place of destination). The general rules explains that the seller is responsible for transporting the goods to the designated place in the importing country. After import customs clearance, the goods are delivered to the buyer or another person designated by the buyer. All risks, responsibilities and expenses (including taxes and expenses for import and export customs clearance) before the delivery of the goods shall be borne by the seller. Therefore, when the seller cannot obtain the import and export license directly or indirectly, this term should not be used.

Description of sea freight and container freight

What is sea transportation?

Sea transportation is the most common mode of transportation for importers and exporters. In fact, 90% of the goods are transported by sea and sea. Other international freight modes (express, standard air, express air) are relatively fast, but the price is also more expensive. Smaller shipments and high-value products usually adopt other modes.

If sea transportation is too slow, but air transportation is too expensive, some freight forwarders now provide relatively new services, commonly known as expedited freight. This service is usually almost as fast as air transportation, but its cost is more like sea transportation. Its working principle is to simplify the shipping process, only combined with faster shipping service and high-quality freight service.

Why do you choose sea transportation over other modes of transportation?

Capacity and value – one container can hold 10000 beer bottles! Sea freight is cheaper. According to experience, any cargo weighing more than 500 kg is too expensive for air transportation. For light goods, please use this chargeable weight calculator to calculate whether your goods are charged by actual weight or dimensional weight.

Less restrictions – International Law, national laws, carrier organization regulations and individual carrier regulations all play a role in defining and limiting which goods are considered dangerous for transportation. In general, more products are restricted to air cargo rather than ocean shipping, including gas (such as light bulbs), all inflammable substances (e.g. perfume, Samsung Galaxy Note 7), toxic or corrosive substances (such as batteries), magnetic materials (such as loudspeakers). Oxidants and biochemical products (e.g. chemicals) and public health risks (e.g. untanned hides). For details, see the hazardous materials table.

Emissions – compared with air transport, carbon dioxide emissions from freight transport by sea are insignificant. For example, according to this study, transporting 2 tons of 5000 km by sea will lead to 150 kg of carbon dioxide emissions, while the carbon dioxide emissions of air transportation will be 6605 kg.

What is the downside of shipping?

Speed – the aircraft is about 30 times faster than the ocean Express; Passenger planes cruise at 575 miles an hour, while slow-moving ocean liners travel at 16-18 miles an hour. Therefore, air cargo from China to the United States usually takes at least 20 days than sea cargo.

Reliability – port congestion, customs delays and bad weather conditions usually add more shipping days than shipping. So far, there are more tracking technologies in air transportation than in sea transportation. This means that sea transportation is easier to misplace than air transportation. This is especially true when shipping is smaller than container loading. In other words, in order to compete with air transportation, sea transportation is slowly becoming more reliable.

Protection – sea transportation is more vulnerable to damage or destruction than air transportation. That’s because it takes longer in transit because ships are more vulnerable to movement. But don’t worry too much about the cargo falling off the ship. The city myth says it loses 10000 a year, but it’s more like 546 of the 120 million containers in drinks a year. Piracy is less likely. Hot spots in recent years include the horn of Africa, the Gulf of Guinea and the Strait of Malacca. For more information about marine insurance, please check our page about cargo insurance.

Select container consolidation or whole container transportation?

Shipping is divided into two options: a full container loading (FCL) and a smaller than container loading (LCL). Using LCL, several goods are loaded into one container. This means that freight forwarders need to do more work, additional paperwork, and physical work to merge various goods into containers before major transportation and to dissolve the goods at the other end. This makes LCL have three disadvantages over FCL:

LCL takes more time to ship than FCL. Freightos freight team usually recommends allowing an additional week or two,

Increased risk of damage, dislocation and loss caused by LCL.

LCL prices are higher. In the experience of freightos’ Freight team, the main transportation cost is about twice the cost per cubic meter.

If it is feasible to consider introducing larger cargo, the critical point for upgrading from LCL to FCL (the minimum size container is 20 feet) is about 15 cubic meters.

How to know the shipping rate?

With the exception of particularly heavy goods, most LCL goods are priced according to the quantity of goods rather than by weight.

For most products, use these rules of thumb to choose the most cost-effective model:

Goods weighing more than 500 kg become uneconomical by air. The sea freight is about 50 cents / kg, and the freight between China and the United States takes about 30-40 days. It is about US $4 per kilogram. The Sino US loading capacity is between 150 kg and 500 kg. It can be transported by air economically. It takes about 8 to 10 days. Express air transport is a few days faster, but it’s more expensive. Packages lighter than 150 kg can be delivered economically by express (express freight). It is about $6 per kilogram, and it will take about 3 days for China and the United States to ship. Please use this chart for products with higher value per ton of goods. It is based on recent quotations and freight rates in the freightos market.

Common sea freight:

Expect to see these items on shipping quotations and invoices:

Customs security surcharge (AMS, ISF)

Container terminals (these are consolidated charges and only LCL is applied)

Terminal handling fee (Port Authority charge)

Customs broker

Pick up and delivery


Surcharges (fuel surcharges, handling of hazardous materials, storage, etc.)

Route charges (e.g. Panama Canal, Alameda corridor)

What is international air transport?

International air transport refers to the transshipment and shipment of goods through air carriers, which can be charter flights or commercial goods. These goods depart from commercial and passenger aviation gateways to any place where aircraft can fly and land. A more direct expression is to transport your goods by plane!

Advantages of air transport

Speed is the biggest advantage of air transportation. This is particularly beneficial for small and medium-sized companies because it allows them to participate in international trade in a rapid and effective manner. Air transport also has the advantage of high security, because the airport’s control of goods is strictly managed.

Air and sea expansion

Combined with the use of other forms of transportation, such as sea, railway and automobile transportation, air transportation is widely used as one of the delivery options in the center, import and export at the beginning of the 20th century. In the past 40 years, during the expansion of trade network and market, air freight as an industry has increased exponentially and is now regarded as an effective means of transportation at home and abroad.

What is “empty plus”?

The so-called air plus delivery is to pick up the goods on site and deliver them to the designated address of the destination, rather than just send them to the local airport and complete customs declaration. The benefits of Air Canada can enable small buyers around the world to actively participate in China’s procurement trade. No longer troubled by customs clearance and delivery.

Disadvantages of air transportation

1. Rejection of some sensitive goods

2. Freight is more expensive than sea transportation

How to select international logistics delivery method?

In addition to products, I’m afraid that friends in international trade are most concerned about an international logistics problem. When receiving an order, how to mail the goods to customers in the fastest and most preferential international logistics way. So how do we choose the delivery channel? Zhanhuawei international logistics compares and introduces the properties, timeliness, price and international express delivery channels of goods.

First, from the nature of goods, international goods can be divided into ordinary goods and imitation goods

First of all, let’s introduce what ordinary goods are. Generally speaking, ordinary goods are ordinary goods, not brand goods, not sensitive goods, etc. Imitation goods refer to counterfeiting other people’s brands, appearance and logo without formal authorization certificate.

For general goods, there are many options for delivery methods, which can basically go. Friends who send ordinary goods can choose the express delivery of postal service, because the postal service has strong customs clearance ability, wide delivery range and cheap price.

The selection of imitation goods is not as wide as that of ordinary goods, because various countries have strict inspection on imitation brand goods and prohibit import. Usually, imitation goods can go through EMS, large postal package, small postal package and other channels. Of course, you can try the four express sometimes, but the price is much more expensive. The most important thing is that the risk is too great. You need to consult the shipping company for specific conditions before you can take the goods.

Second, analyze the timeliness of goods

Foreign trade customers are most concerned about the timeliness of delivery, because too long will lead to customer complaints, and even the risk that some foreign trade customer stores on third-party platforms will be closed. Therefore, the speed of logistics has become the top priority. For example, UPS, DHL, FedEx and international special lines are the fastest ones. The timeliness control is relatively fast. They can be delivered within 3-7 days. If they are from Southeast Asian countries, they can be delivered within 5 working days. For EMS service, the timeliness can be controlled within 7-10 days. If you are lucky, some countries even have a shorter time. EMS service mainly has fast timeliness and good stability. There are also items like big bags. You can take big bags by air, but the time limit is about 20 days. If the requirements for timeliness are low and the price is cheap, you can use surface mail or land and water channels. Generally, the timeliness is within 30-40. At present, there are many delivery channels, and each channel has its own advantages. You can choose according to your own situation.

Third, analyze the price of goods

In terms of price, parcels less than two kilograms can choose postal parcels, e postal treasure and other channels. If it is more than two kilograms but less than thirty kilograms, you can choose China Post big bag and Hongkong Post big bag services. In addition, for goods below 21kg, four international express is preferred. Of course, there is a problem of volume weight and remote cost when sending international express. If the volume weight is too much heavier than the actual weight, you should consider it comprehensively. Remote costs are the same. The four major international express companies will have their own remote cost price, which should be considered in the freight after checking.

Fourth, analyze the advantages of international express

DHL Express mainly has great advantages in Europe, America, Africa and South America. UPS Express mainly goes to Southeast Asia, which has obvious advantages. FedEx Express is mainly expensive, but it has the advantage of strong customs clearance capacity in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. These international express have the characteristics of fast timeliness and strong customs clearance ability, but the price is expensive. International express business can consult Internet easy customer service to provide the best delivery channel and price advantage.

The above is an analysis on the delivery mode of foreign trade customers. The above is a summary analysis on the price, nature and timeliness of goods. I believe you can choose a suitable delivery channel according to your delivery situation.